Rabu, 25 Februari 2009

Pengertian Pertanian Lahan Kering (MK. Peternakan Lahan Kering - FAPET - UNDANA)

Sebenarnya defenisi tentang pertanian lahan kering masih belum disepakati benar. Kita hanya bisa mengacu kepada usulan-usulan dan kebiasaan - kebiasaan yang dianut. Perhatikan beberapa referensi berikut ini:

Wikipedia.org (Dryland farming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Dryland farming is an agricultural technique for cultivating land which receives little rainfall. Dryland farming is used in the Great Plains, the Palouse plateau of Eastern Washington regions of North America, the Middle East and in other grain growing regions such as the steppes of Eurasia and Argentina. Dryland farming was introduced to the southern Russian Empire by Russian Mennonites under the influence of Johann Cornies, making the region the breadbasket of Russia.[1] Winter wheat is the typical crop although skilled dryland farmers sometimes grow corn, beans or even watermelons. Successful dryland farming is possible with as little as 15 inches (380 mm) of precipitation a year, but much more successful with 20 inches (510 mm) or more. It is also known that Native American tribes in the arid SouthWest subsisted for hundreds of years on dryland farming in areas with less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rain.

In marginal regions, a farmer should be financially able to survive occasional crop failures, perhaps of several years running. A soil which absorbs and holds moisture is helpful as is the practice of leaving stubble standing in the field to catch blowing snow.

There are many techniques to dry farm. Some common techniques are to pull weeds that suck moisture, plant seeds deep in the ground to get maximum moisture and fallowing the land. Another technique is to plant crops in every other row. This way the odd rows' moisture will be built up for 2 years. This technique uses a lot of space since the farmer is only using half the land for profit.

Berdasarkan uraian di atas, pengertian pertanian lahan kering tampaknya dibangun berdasarkan sejarah atau kebiasaan, yaitu sistem pertanian yang ada di daerah dengan curah hujan tahunan berkisar antara 250 mm (di USA) sampai 510 mm di Russia.

Akan tetapi coba perhatikan defensi berikut ini:

Lahan kering umumnya terdapat didataran tinggi (daerah pegunungan) yang ditandai dengan topografinya yang bergelombang dan merupakan daerah penerima dan peresap air hujan yang kemudian dialirkan kedataran rendah, baik melalui permukaan tanah (sungai) maupun melalui jaringan bumi air tanah. Jadi lahan kering didefinisikan sebagai dataran tinggi yang lahan pertaniannya lebih banyak menggantungkan diri pada curah hujan. Lahan kering diterjemahkan dari kata “upland” yang menunjukkan kepada gambaran “daerah atas” (Hasnudi dan Saleh, 2006)

Perhatikan pula usulan berikut ini:

Hingga saat ini takrif pengertian lahan kering di Indonesia belum disepakati benar. Di dalam bahasa Inggris banyak istilah-istilah yng dipadankan dengan lahan kering seperti upland, dryland dan unirrigated land, yang menyiratkan penggunan pertanian tadah hujan. Istilah upland farming, dryland farming dan rainfed farming dua istilah terakhir yang digunakan untuk pertanian di daerah bercurah hujan terbatas. Penertian upland mengandung arti lahan atasan yang merupakan lawan kata bawahan (lowland) yang terkait dengan kondisi drainase (Tejoyuwono, 1989) dalam Suwardji (2003). Sedangkan istilah unirrigated land biasanya digunakan untuk teknik pertanian yang tidak memiliki fasilitas irigasi. Namun pengertian lahan tidak beririgasi tidak memisahkan pengusahaan lahan dengan system sawah tadah hujan.

Untuk menghilangkan kerancuan pengertian lahan kering dengan istilah pertanian lahan kering Tejoyuwono (1989) dalam Suwardji (2003) menyarankan beberapa pengertian sebagai berikut:

  • untuk kawasan atau daerah yang memiliki jumlah evaporasi potensial melebihi jumlah curah hujan actual atau daerah yang jumlah curah hujannya tidak mencukupi untuk usaha pertanian tanpa irigasi disebut dengan “Daerah Kering”.
  • untuk lahan dengan draenase alamiah lancar dan bukan merupakan daerah dataran banjir, rawa, lahan dengan air tanah dangkal, atau lahan basah alamiah lain istilahnya lahan atasan atau Upland.
  • untuk lahan pertanian yang diusahakan tanpa penggenangan, istilahnya lahan kering.

Kesepakatan pengertian lahan kering dalam seminar nasional pengembangan wilayah lahan kering ke 3 di Lampung : (upland dan rainfed) adalah hamparan lahan yang didayagunakan tanpa penggenangan air, baik secara permanen maupun musiman dengan sumber air berupa hujan atau air irigasi (Suwardji, 2003)). Definisi yang diberikan oleh soil Survey Staffs (1998) dalam Haryati (2002), lahan kering adalah hamparan lahan yang tidak pernah tergenang atau digenangi air selama periode sebagian besar waktu dalam setahun. Tipologi lahan ini dapat dijumpai dari dataran rendah (0-700 m dpl) hingga dataran tinggi (> 700m dpl). Dari pengertian diatas, maka jenis penggunaan lahan yang termasuk dalam kelompok lahan kering mencakup: lahan tadah hujan, tegalan, lading, kebun campuran, perkebunan, hutan, semak, padang rumput, dan padang alang-alang.

Lahan kering mempunyai potensi yang cukup luas untuk dikembangkan, dengan luas yang mencapai 52,5 juta ha (Haryati, 2002) untuk seluruh indonesia maka pengembangan sangat perlu dilakukan. Menurut Simposium Nasional tentang Lahan Kering di Malang (1991) penggunaan lahan untuk lahan kering berturut adalah sebagai berikut: hutan rakyat, perkebunan, tegalan, tanah yang sedang tidak diusahakan, ladang dan padang rumput.


Senin, 23 Februari 2009

Ecology and Management of Grasslands (www.home.intekom.com)



The ecology of Southern Africa's grasslands is affected by grazing, fire, rainfall etc. -- all these factors play a significant role in the species composition and health of a grassland.

If herbacious plants and trees (Dicots) are browsed or bitten by animals, the growing tip is destroyed and the plant reacts by putting out alternate shoots. This has the effect of causing the plant to 'coppice' and the plant produces more and denser growth. However, if grasses (Monocots) are bitten or grazed by animals, the growing part is not destroyed and it will continue growing from the base, with the bitten tips remaining a feature. The utilisation of grass species by grazers can thus easily be identified.

Photographer: EcoTravel Africa

Through the process of 'photosynthesis', leaves produce food energy from sunlight, minerals and water. The energy to produce growth, however, is obtained from energy stored in the roots. As the grass plant grows so it withdraws from the roots until it has manufactured enough energy to restore that taken from the roots. If a plant is browsed immediately and frequently, as it tries to grow, it will be unable to replace root energy and the effect is that the rootstock will be weakened or diminished.

Even one animal, confined to an area, will nibble away, preventing any 'rest' period for the plants to grow and renew root vigour. If we started nibbling at growing vegetables in our garden, they would not grow into mature plants and certainly would not reach the stage of producing seed. Exactly the same happens with growing grasses -- they need a rest from grazing and have a time to grow.

The lack of rest and growing time is caused by what is known as 'constant nibble' and constant nibble can be effected by only one animal. Ecologically, rest time is the important factor and not numbers of grazers.

There are grass species adapted to almost every terrestrial habitat on earth. In arid 'pioneer' situations the grass forms tend to rely on seed production to carry them over dry periods. This a method used even by some fish (Nothobranchius sp.), whose eggs need to desiccate in the bottom dry pans before hatching in the next rains.

Most of the pioneer type grasses have narrow leaves, or some other method of cutting down transpiration, and sharp seeds that can lodge in bare ground that is often compacted by hooves. Pioneer grasses are unpalatable to most grazing animals, thus increasing their chance of survival. Seasonal grasses are termed annuals and they tend to indicate poor veld condition.

Certain other grasses rely on vegetative expansion. These 'creeping' grasses send 'runners' out from an established base. Should the runners encounter a suitable growing patch they will send down roots from the nearest 'node' and establish another plant. For example: Creeping Bristle Grass. Species of this growth form have low, lateral growth, often with the bulk of their mass underground. The leaves of these grasses are usually tough and hard to graze but the juicy root stock, in sandy soils, is utilised by warthogs, mole rats and springhares.

As conditions for growth improve the grass species tend to become broader leafed. The seeds become rounder, enabling them to drop between the increased ground cover. With these grasses becoming more attractive to grazers, animal droppings and hoof action further improve water infiltration, nutrition and other conditions for growth. Where grass plants survive through successive seasons in vegetative form they are termed 'perennial'.

The occurrence of perennial species indicates improved veld conditions. With increased competition for light, the grass species grow taller with more bulk and provide better soil protection. In many cases they become less palatable with inedible stems, like the grass used for thatching.

The leaves of many of these tall grasses are only accessible to certain ungulates with the necessary adaptations. The horns of both male and female sable antelope and roan antelope, as examples, help part the long grass stems to reveal the palatable leaves below. If the adapted species of antelope are missing, these grasslands may become unutilised and 'moribund'.

Too much shading from moribund material can smother plants and result in die off. Under-utilisation of grasses, while resulting in better soil cover, is nearly as detrimental as overutilisation. There is a very necessary relationship between grazers and grasses. In natural circumstances the 'coarse grazers' (like cape buffalo) will move through thick swathes of grass, opening it up for other species, which will shorten it further, making it suitable for the next species, and so on through the season.

The various species of ungulate assist each other with this type of interaction which results in ideal grassland management, producing a trampled mulch to retain moisture and permit light penetration. Where this doesn't occur the use of mowing may become necessary. Burning destroys the valuable mulch and sterilises much of the area. Grazing management. To return to the matter of time and numbers - many people consider veld management to involve solely the numbers of animals on a particular area.

This thinking comes from grassland / monospecies management. Under natural, subtropical conditions, animal populations would move around to the best grazing areas, unhindered by fences. Herds would tend to aggregate in large numbers at the end of the dry season, when they had to keep on the move to find food. It this way they acted like a natural mowing machine. When the rains arrived the large groups split up into their herds once more, with the benefit of 'new blood'. These natural systems enabled the grasses to receive the required rest periods for growth.

Furthermore, when one looks at the ecology of a grassland, there is little significance in numbers of animals at any one time but great significance in the amount of time spent on an area by even a few animals. If you walked one beast down a regular route each day of the year (x 365 animal days) there would be a well worn path at the end of the year. Even humans walking across a lawn often enough will form a distinct path!

Alternately, if you walked 365 animals down the same route on only one day of the year (also x 365 animal days), there would be no sign that they had been there at the end of the year. You could even pass 5000 animals through the area for a short period without affecting plant growth. The same thinking applies to grazing.

Regardless of the number of animals, moving herds leaves rest periods for the grass plants to grow. The damage of 'constant nibble' is caused by confined populations or animals 'anchored' to artificial and often badly sited water points. If the grasses are not getting the required rest during the growing period then veld management is faulted and the ecological balance of the grassland will suffer.

Rabu, 04 Februari 2009

soal UAS MK Analisis Statistika PPS (S2) Undana Prodi MAP 2000-2009

TOTAL ada % vuah SOAL:

1. Hasil UTS mahasiswa MK Analisis Statistika PPS "Universitas Atas Angin" Prodi "Minyak Angin" tahun 2008/2009 sebagai berikut:

1 orang memperoleh nilai 82
3 orang memperoleh nilai 73
5 orang memperoleh nilai 70
8 orang memperoleh nilai 65
6 orang memperoleh nilai 60
4 orang memperoleh nilai 55
2 orang memperoleh nilai 50
1 orang memperoleh nilai 45

Tentukan selang kepercayaan untuk nilai rerata kelas MK Analisis Statistika dengan menggunakan taraf signifikansi 5% (Z skor 1,96) dan 1% (Z skor 2,58).

2. Hasil penataran terhadap 10 orang pengelola keuangan yang berasal dari berbagai instansi di lungkungan Pemda X, menghaislkan data test kemampuan peserta sebagai berikut:

Pre-test : 4; 5; 5; 6; 5; 4; 8; 4; 5; 6
Post-test: 7; 7; 8; 7; 6; 8; 9; 6; 5; 9

Jika Gubernur ingin mengetahui apakah penataran tersebut membawa manfaat maka hipotesis apa yang dapat diajukan dan bagaimana cara Gubernur mengambil keputusan terhadap hipotesis itu pada taraf uji 5% dan 1%.

Nah, Sebagai pembantu Gubernur yang baik, analisis dan hitunglah data itu lalu sajikan kepada Gubernur. Mulailah menghitung wahai para Bos dan Bes jika tak mau dipecat.

3. Sekelompok data tanpa identitas dijumpai pada pukul 11.00 WITA di tumpukan arsip surat masuk di meja kerja Lurah Naikoten I. Data dimaksud adalah sebagai berikut:

X : 9; 6; 7; 4; 4; 3; 3; 2; 1 ; 1
Y: 10; 7; 9; 5; 3; 2; 3; 2; 2; 1

Di bagian bawah lembar data tersebut terdapat perintah atasan pak Lurah.... "segera analisis dan diserahkan sebelum pukul 13.00 WITA"...... Pak lurah bingung hendak diapakan kumpulan data itu. Lalu, beliau menghubungi seorang warga kelurahan yang tinggal persis di depan kantor kelurahan guna meminta pertolongan. Tak sampai 30 menit warga yang baik itu menghitung dan menganalisis data tersebut. Pak Lurah senang dan bangga terhadap hasil kerja warga kelurahannya itu (tapi lupa memberi uang lelah ha ha ha ha...).

Di dalam kertas kerja tertulis kata-kata : koefisien korelasi, persamaan regresi linier sederhana, dan pengujian signifikansi pada taraf uji 5% dan 1%.

Harusnya anda tahu bagaimana cara tetangga pak Lurah itu menghitungnya. Jawablah sobat. NOW.

4. Kegiatan Undana Clean dan Green 2009 diharapkan dapat membawa dampak positif terhadap kesadaran warga Undana untuk menata lingkungan kampusnya lebih baik. Untuk itu suatu survei sederhana dilakukan guna memeriksa harapan di atas. Pekerjaan tim peneliti mencatat data sebagai berikut:

Skor kebersihan berbagai unit di Undana sebelum UCG:
2; 1; 3; 3; 2; 1; 2; 1; 4; 2; 2; 3; 4; 2; 2; 1; 2; 4; 1; 2; 2; 2; 1; 1

Skor kebersihan berbagai unit di Undana sesudah UCG:
3; 2; 4; 2; 4; 3; 4; 4; 2; 2; 3; 3; 4; 1; 3; 2; 4; 3; 3; 4; 1; 1; 1; 3

Bagaimana anda menghitung dan menjawab pertanyaan: apakah kegiatan UCG ada gunanya?


  1. angka untuk setiap mahasiswa HARUS BERBEDA. Caranya adalah tambahkan angka di belakang tanda, (koma) misalnya 2 anda buat menjadi 2,1. Penambahan angka di belakang koma dapat lebih dari 1 digit, misalnya: 2,12 dan seterusnya.
  2. SETIAP DATA DENGAN ANGKA YANG PERSIS SAMA, akan saya beri nilai 0. Tidak saya periksa.

Selasa, 03 Februari 2009

pengumuman ujian MK. Analisis Statistika

Untuk mahasiswa PPS Undana Prodi MAP dan MPSAL harap memperhatikan catatan saya berikut ini:
  1. UAS untuk Prodi MAP akan diselenggarakan hari Rabu, 04 Februari 2009 pukul 16.00 WITA - selesai. Soal akan diposting besok, 04 Februari 2009, pada pukul 10.00 WITA.
  2. Bagi prodi MPSAL, besok pukul 16.15 tatap muka pada pokok bahasan terakhir, yaitu Statistika Non-Parametrik. UJIAN akan diselenggarakan pada hari Jumat, 06 Februari 2009. Soal akan diposting pada hari Kamis, 05 Februari 2009.
Demikian pengumuman ini supaya dimaklumi.

tabel sebaran chi-square dan fungsi distribusi binomial n = 8 - 12

Untu mahasiswa Pengantar Analisis Statistika MAP dan MPSAL PPS UNDANA Kupang, silakan dicopy paste tabel-tabel ini yang akan digunakan pada saat UAS. Harap Maklum

bahan kuliah 2, MK Pengendalian Kebakaran dan Penggembalaan Liar, Prodihut, S1

Fakta Empirik Kebakaran dan Penggembalaan Liar di Indonesia  Musim kemarau panjang di Indonesia identik dengan masalah akut seputar...