Rabu, 16 Maret 2016

inventarisasi sumberdaya alam: masalah, maksud, tujuan dan terminologi

Pengertian inventarisasi sumberdaya alam adalah pengumpulan dan penyusunan data dan segala sesuatu mengenai sumberdaya alam guna melakukan perencanaan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat secara lestari dan serbaguna.

Inventarisasi sumberdaya alam juga dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu usaha untuk menguraikan kualitas dan kuantitas sumberdaya alam serta berbagai ciri dan karakteristik arael tempat tumbuhnya. Tujuan dari inventarisasi sumberdaya alam adalah untuk mendapatkan data yang akan diolah menjadi informasi yang dipergunakan sebagai bahan perencanaan dan perumusan kebijaksanaan strategik jangka panjang, jangka menengah dan operasional jangka pendek sesuai dengan tingkatan dan Ketajaman inventarisasi yang dilaksanakan.

1.   Permasalahan  
Beberapa permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam pengelolaan sumber daya alam dan lingkungan hidup adalah:
·         keterbatasan data dan informasi dalam kuantitas maupun kualitasnya. Keterbatasan data dan informasi yang akurat berpengaruh pada kegiatan pengelolaan dan pengendalian sumber daya alam dan lingkungan hidup yang belum dapat berjalan dengan baik. Sementara itu, sistem pengelolaan informasi yang transparan juga belum melembaga dengan baik sehingga masyarakat belum mendapat akses terhadap data dan informasi secara memadai.
·         Permasalahan pokok lainnya adalah kurang efektifnya pengawasan dan pengendalian dalam pengelolaan sumber daya alam yang ada, yang menyebabkan kerusakan sumber daya alam. Kondisi ini ditandai dengan maraknya pengambilan terumbu karang dan pemboman ikan, perambahan hutan, kebakaran hutan dan lahan serta pertambangan tanpa izin.
·         Permasalahan lainnya adalah belum jelasnya pengaturan pemanfaatan sumber daya genetik yang mengancam keanekaragaman hayati dan kesehatan manusia serta permasalahan ketergantungan yang tinggi pada sumber daya fosil.

2.   Maksud
·         Berdasarkan Undang-undang 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup tentang perlunya dilaksanakan Inventarisasi Lingkungan Hidup, maka maksud dari program Inventarisasi Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan Hidup adalah pemetaan rupa bumi yang merupakan informasi dasar bagi kegitan pemetaan maupun kegiatan inventarisasi potensi sumber alam. Pemetaan rupa bumi merupakan peta topografi yang menampilkan sebagian unsur-unsur alam dan buatan manusia di Wilayah Indonesia.
·         Hal ini sejalan dengan ketentuan Pasal 6 ayat (2), Pasal 7 ayat (2), dan Pasal 8 Undang-Undang 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup yang mengamanatkan perlunya dilakukan Inventarisasi Sumber Daya Alam untuk memperoleh data dan informasi mengenai sumber daya alam untuk pembangunan yang berkelanjutan.

3.      Tujuan
Tujuan dari kegiatan inventarisasi sumber daya alam adalah sebagai berikut :
a.      Untuk memperoleh dan menyebarluaskan informasi yang lengkap dan handal mengenai potensi dan produktivitas dan sumber daya alam dan lingkungan hidup.
b.      Meningkatkan pengenalan terhadap jumlah dan mutu sumber daya alam dan mengembangkan neraca dan tata guna sumber alam dan lingkungan hidup untuk mengetahui daya dukung dan menjamin ketersediaan sumber alam yang berkelanjutan.

Selanjutnya akan diuraikan tentang pemahaman terhadap pengertian inventarisasi dan sumberaya alam:


In the USA and Canada the term has developed from a list of goods and materials to the goods and materials themselves, especially those held available in stock by a business; and this has become the primary meaning of the term in North American English, equivalent to the term "stock" in British English. In accounting, inventory or stock is considered an asset.
  • Inventory management is primarily about specifying the size and placement of stocked goods. Inventory management is required at different locations within a facility or within multiple locations of a supply network to protect the regular and planned course of production against the random disturbance of running out of materials or goods.
  • The scope of inventory management also concerns the fine lines between replenishment lead time, carrying costs of inventory, asset management, inventory forecasting, inventory valuation, inventory visibility, future inventory price forecasting, physical inventory, available physical space for inventory, quality management, replenishment, returns and defective goods and demand forecasting. Balancing these competing requirements leads to optimal inventory levels, which is an on-going process as the business needs shift and react to the wider environment. Inventory management involves a retailer seeking to acquire and maintain a proper merchandise assortment while ordering, shipping, handling, and related costs are kept in check.
  • Systems and processes that identify inventory requirements, set targets, provide replenishment techniques and report actual and projected inventory status. Handles all functions related to the tracking and management of material. This would include the monitoring of material moved into and out of stockroom locations and the reconciling of the inventory balances. Also may include ABC analysis, lot tracking, cycle counting support etc.
  • Tujuan : Management of the inventories, with the primary objective of determining/controlling stock levels within the physical distribution function to balance the need for product availability against the need for minimizing stock holding and handling costs. See inventory proportionality.
The reasons for keeping stock
There are three basic reasons for keeping an inventory:
  1. Time - The time lags present in the supply chain, from supplier to user at every stage, requires that you maintain certain amounts of inventory to use in this "lead time."
  2. Uncertainty - Inventories are maintained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand, supply and movements of goods.
  3. Economies of scale - Ideal condition of "one unit at a time at a place where a user needs it, when he needs it" principle tends to incur lots of costs in terms of logistics. So bulk buying, movement and storing brings in economies of scale, thus inventory.
All these stock reasons can apply to any owner or product stage.
  • Buffer stock is held in individual workstations against the possibility that the upstream workstation may be a little delayed in long setup or change over time. This stock is then used while that changeover is happening. This stock can be eliminated by tools like SMED.
These classifications apply along the whole Supply chain, not just within a facility or plant.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer. In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable.
Supply chains link value chains.[2]
è A supply chain or vendor, or a supplier, is a supply chain management term meaning anyone who provides goods or services to a company. A vendor often manufactures inventoriable items, and sells those items to a customer.
è A customer (also known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is usually used to refer to a current or potential buyer or user of the products of an individual or organization, called the supplier, seller, or vendor. This is typically through purchasing or renting goods or services. However, in certain contexts, the term customer also includes by extension any entity that uses or experiences the services of another. A customer may also be a viewer of the product or service that is being sold despite deciding not to buy them. The general distinction between a customer and a client is that a customer purchases products whereas a client purchases services.
è The value chain, also known as value chain analysis, is a concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in his 1985 best-seller, Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance.[1]

Where these stocks contain the same or similar items, it is often the work practice to hold all these stocks mixed together before or after the sub-process to which they relate. This 'reduces' costs. Because they are mixed up together there is no visual reminder to operators of the adjacent sub-processes or line management of the stock, which is due to a particular cause and should be a particular individual's responsibility with inevitable consequences. Some plants have centralized stock holding across sub-processes, which makes the situation even more acute.
Jadi, inventore harus berbasis investigasi à riset

Apa itu riset?

Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.

Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.

Natural resource

Natural resources (economically referred to as land or raw materials) occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment. This is currently restricted to the environment of Earth yet the theoretical possibility remains of extracting them from outside the planet, such as the asteroid belt.[1] Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.
On the basis of origin, resources may be divided into:
  • Biotic - Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere, such as forests and their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other marine organisms. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter.
  • Abiotic - Abiotic resources include non-living things. Examples include land, water, air and ores such as gold, iron, copper, silver etc.
Considering their stage of development, natural resources may be referred to in the following ways:
  • Potential Resources - Potential resources are those that exist in a region and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India, having sedimentary rocks but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource.
  • Actual Resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved. That part of the actual resource that can be developed profitably with available technology is called a reserve.
On the basis of status of development, they can be classified into potential resources,developed resources,stock and reserves.
With respect to renewability, natural resources can be categorized as follows:
  • Renewable resources are ones that can be replenished or reproduced easily. Some of them, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption. Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished, thus maintaining a flow. Some of these, like agricultural crops, take a short time for renewal; others, like water, take a comparatively longer time, while still others, like forests, take even longer.
  • Non-renewable resources are formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossil fuels are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they get depleted. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them.[2] But coal and petroleum cannot be recycled.[3]
On the basis of availability, natural resources can be categorised as follows:
  • Inexhaustible natural resources- Those resources which are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted easily by human activity are inexhaustible natural resources (sunlight, air etc.)
  • Exhaustible natural resources- The amount of these resources are limited. They can be exhausted by human activity in the long run (coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.)
Natural resource management is a discipline in the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. Natural resource management is interrelated with the concept of sustainable development, a principle that forms a basis for land management and environmental governance throughout the world.
In contrast to the policy emphases of urban planning and the broader concept of environmental management, Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources.

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